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Manchester History

1800-1899

1801 First Whit Walk held.
1803 First table of atomic weights of elements and atomic theory propounded by John Dalton at a meeting of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society.
1804 Rochdale Canal opened.
1805 Lee and Phillips factory in Salford the first to be lit by gas.
1806 Portico Library, Mosley Street, opened.
First packet boat from New Bailey Bridge to Runcorn using Mersey Irwell Navigation.
1808 Manchester and Salford Waterworks Company established.
1809 New Exchange opened on Market Street.
1818 Manchester Cricket Club founded.
1819 Peterloo Massacre.
1820 Manchester Chamber of Commerce founded.
Manchester Guardian founded.
Blackfriars Bridge opened.
1822 Manchester Society for the Promotion of Natural History established. Eventually the collection formed the basis of the collections of the Manchester Museum.
Foundation stone of Town Hall, King Street, laid.
1823 Royal Manchester Institution founded.
Manchester Gas Act passed.
John Greenwood introduced a horse bus service from Pendleton to Manchester.
1824 Waterproof rubberised cloth ----> first produced by Charles Macintosh, who gave his name to this new item of clothing.(The factory was taken over by the Dunlop company but is now being converted into student housing units.)
1825 Manchester Courier first published.
Fire Engine Department established by police Commissioners.
1826 Liverpool and Manchester Railway Act passed.
Manchester branch of the Bank of England opened.
1828 Bank of Manchester, Market Street opened.
1830 Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened, the first purpose-built passenger railway.
1831 Botanical and Horticultural Gardens, Old Trafford, opened.
Broughton Suspension Bridge collapsed as the sixtieth Rifle Corps were marching over it in step - this gave rise to the order 'Break step' when marching men across bridges.
Gentlemen's Concert Hall on the corner of Peter Street and Lower Mosley Street opened. Charles Halle came to Manchester in 1848 to conduct this orchestra.
1832 Outbreak of cholera.
Reform Act passed which gave Manchester the right to be represented by two Members of Parliament.
1834 Manchester and Salford Institution for the Treatment of the Skin opened.
1836 Manchester and Salford Junction Canal Act passed.
Belle Vue leisure garden and zoo opened.
1837 Corn Exchange, Hanging Ditch, opened.
Manchester Architectural Society founded.
1838 Population given as 181,708 and borough of Manchester formed. Ardwick cemetery opened - many of Manchester's leading figures of the nineteenth century buried here, including John Dalton.
Manchester School of Art founded.
Edward Walters designed the textile warehouse on Mosley Street for Richard Cobden.
Manchester and Bolton railway opened.
Chartis meeting, Kersal Moor.
Anti-Corn Law League founded.
1839 Manchester and Leeds Railway opened as far as Littleborough, completed in 1841.
1840 Manchester and Birmingham Railway opened as far as Stockport, completed in 1842.
First Free Trade Hall opened for Anti-Corn Law League Bazaar.
1843 Cheetham Society founded.
Free trade Hall rebuilt.
Saturday half-day introduced by William Marsden.
1844 Hunts Bank opened.
Manchester Police Act passed which resulted in the prohibition of the construction of back to back houses in the borough of Manchester.
John Dalton died and buried in Ardwick Cemetery.
1845 New Theatre Royal on Peter Street opened.
1846 Manchester purchase manorial rights from Mosleys.
Anti-Corn Law League dissolved on passing of act repealing the corn laws.
John Owens died and left money to found Owen's College, now Manchester University.
Peel Park, Salford and Philips Park and Queens Park, Manchester opened.
1847 Manchester Diocese created.
1848 Salford Roman Catholic Cathedral consecrated.
1849 Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway opened, becoming the region's first true commuter route.
1850 Hall of Science, Campfield, presented to Manchester for use as Free Library.
1851 Queen Victoria visits Manchester for the first time.
Population of the borough of Manchester recorded as 303,382.
Manchester and Salford Sanitary Association formed, the first local authority to seek supplies of water from outside its boundary and to pipe it any distance to supply the needs of the residents.
1852 Manchester Free Library opened, later Manchester Public Libraries, in the former Owenite Hall of Science, Campfield - the firs library opened under the 1800 Libraries Act.
Roget's Thesaurus first published.
1853 Manchester created a city.
1856 Free Trade Hall opened.
1857 Art Treasures Exhibition held in Botanical Gardens, Old Trafford
1858 Watt's Warehouse opened. This was the grandest of the cotton warehouses to be erected in Manchester and is now the Britannia Hotel.
First Halle Concerts held.
World's first flash-light photograph taken in Manchester by Sir Henry Roscoe.
1862 Co-operative Wholesale Society formed.
Cotton famine began because of the American Civil War.
1867 Albert Memorial handed over to Manchester.
Fenian murder of Sergeant Brett on Hyde Road. Three Irishmen were convicted and executed by hanging at New Bailey Prison and became the basis for the collections in the Manchester Museum.
Last public execution to be held in England.
1870 Manchester School Board formed.
1871 Reform Club, King Street, opened.
Barton Arcade completed.
1876 First full-sized statue of Cromwell in the country erected.
1877 New Town Hall in Albert Square opened.
First horse-drawn trams introduced.
1878 Newton Heath Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Football Club founded and became the Manchester United Football Club in 1902.
1880 Central Station opened.
Gorton West Football Club formed. Became Manchester City Football Club in 1894.
1882 Meeting at the Towers, Didsbury which resulted in the formation of the Manchester Ship Canal Company.
Royal Manchester Institution passed its art gallery on to Manchester, which became the Manchester City Art Gallery.
1885 Manchester Ship Canal Act passed.
1887 Work started on the construction of the Manchester Ship Canal.
Royal Jubilee Exhibition held.
1891 Population of Manchester 563,368
1894 Manchester Ship Canal opened.
Thirlmere Aqueduct opened providing Manchester with water from the Lake District.
1897 The de Trafford family sell their Manchester estates, eventually becoming Trafford Park Industrial Estate.

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